Turkish has no verb "to be" and no verb "to have." It prefers the passive to the active voice and has one word for "he," "she" and "it." It is an agglutinative language, which means that root nouns often carry a string of 10 or more suffixes. Turkish also likes verbal nouns (the "doing of," the "having been done unto") and because you do not know the verb until the end of the sentence, you often read four, five or six clauses without knowing how they are connected.
A Turkish word starts with a short root (such as git-, 'go'). One or more suffixes are added to modify the root (gitti, 's/he went'). You can make whole sentences in Turkish out of one little word root and a lot of suffixes. Suffixes are sometimes preceded by a 'buffer letter' such as 'y' or 'n' for smooth pronunciation.
Plural: -lar, -ler
To, Toward: -a, -e (or -ya, -ye)
Bankaya, to the bank
Otele, to the hotel
From: -dan, -den
Bankadan, from the bank
Otelden, from the hotel
Possessive: -ın, -in, -nın, or -nin
Bankanın, the bank's
Otelin, the hotel's
With: -lı, -li, -lu, -lü
Et, meat; etli, with meat
Süt, milk; sütlü, with milk
Without: -sız,-siz,-suz, -süz
Et, meat; etsiz, without meat, meatless
Süt, milk; sütsüz, without milk
You may see -ı, -i, -u or -ü, -sı, -si, -su or -sü added to any noun. An ev is a house; but the ev that Mehmet lives in is Mehmet'in evi.
Infinitive: -mak, -mek
Almak, to take or buy
Gitmek, to go
Simple present: -ar, -er, -ır, -ir, -ur, -ür
Alır, he/she/it takes or buys
Gider, he/she/it goes
Future: -acak, -ecek, -acağ-, -eceğ-
Alacak, he/she/it will take, buy
Gidecek, he/she/it will go
Simple past: -dı, -di, -du, -dü
Aldı, he/she/it took, bought
Gitti, he/she/it went
Continuous: -ıyor-, -iyor- (like English '-ing')
Alıyor, he/she/it is taking, buying
Gidiyor, he/she/it is going
Question: -mı, -mi, -mu, -mü
Alıyor mu? Is he/she/it taking (it)?
Gidecek mi? Will he/she/it go?
First Person Singular (I):-ım, -im, -um, -üm
Alırım, I take
Second Person Singular (you-informal): -sın, -sin, -sun, -sün
Alırsın, You take
Third Person Singular (he/she/it): (no suffix)
Alır, he/she/it takes
First Person Plural (we): -ız, -iz, -uz,-üz
Alırız, we take
Second Person Plural (you-formal): -sınız, -siniz, -sunuz,-sünüz
Alırsınız, You (plural) take; or You (singular-formal) take
Third Person Plural (they): -lar, -ler
Alırlar, They take.
Nouns and adjectives usually come first, followed by the verb. The subject of the sentence is often the final suffix (unless the sentence is a question):
İstanbul'a gidecegim, I'm going to Istanbul.
Halı almak istiyorum, I want to buy (take) a carpet (literally 'Carpet to buy want I')