Thursday, January 14, 2016

Lucy Allen: On Medieval Women

Dr Lucy Allen, Lecturer at Kings College Cambridge, gives a talk on BBC Radio 4 on transgressing in the senior common room in the college after dinner into a conversation about whether violence against women in the series "Game of Thrones" is in fact realistic since, the argument goes, it reflects violence against medieval women in the 15th C Wars of the Roses. Yes, there is profound violence, she argues, but people then are "hugely concerned" about it. Medieval society seems both conflicted and concerned. In the medieval copied text, illustrations made by Jeanne de Monbaston for Roman de la Rose, show an image of a nun next to the text picking fruit aka penises from a penis tree. In this image, women seem to be having a joke at the expense of misogynists.

The Alliterative Mord d'Arthure, a middle English literary poem of 1400, describes the hero meeting a woman sitting beside a newly made grave: the text shows, and even breaks off her broken account indicating she can hardly describe that her foster daughter has been raped and murdered: the broken text reflects the aftermath of trauma. In this narrative, violence against women is shown as a trauma. Thus, women are finding spaces to oppose misogynist culture in the margins and the narrative of texts.

Tuesday, January 12, 2016

Greek Manuscript Treasures in the Vatican Library

Four minutes on the Greek manuscript treasures in the Vatican Library - expertly narrated by Dr. Timothy Janz, Scriptor Graecus at the Vatican Library

Tuesday, January 05, 2016

How Do the Magi Receive Revelation (from Episcopal Cafe 2013)

How do the Magi receive revelation?

by Deirdre Good with help from Julian Sheffield
Today’s gospel for the feast of the Epiphany is Matthew’s account of the journey of the Magi to the house wherein Jesus was born. Led by a star, they travelled from further east to Jerusalem where they inquired of Herod, client king of Rome, “Where is the child born king of the Jews, for we have seen his star at it’s rising and have come to worship him?” (Matthew 2:2). Much of the chapter is about discernment: how do the Magi determine that following a star from their place of origin will lead them to a child born to be King? How does Herod determine the degree of threat posed by the existence of such a child? How do those in Herod’s realm respond to the quest of the Magi? How does Joseph manage the threat Herod poses against the child in his care? It’s a question that interests all religious people.
But through these questions lie larger ones about determining the significance of the child for the Magi, for Herod, for the kingdom of Judea, for Israel. Matthew does not describe the process of discernment each character in the narrative undergoes so much as the outcome: the Magi tenaciously follow the star over long distances in order to worship this child; Herod reacts in fear and then stealth, then anger and retaliation, as he copes with news of the child’s birth and the implications of the child; all Jerusalem reacts in much the same way as Herod to the query of the Magi; Joseph simply does what an angel tells him and thus saves the child and his mother by taking them to Egypt. Since the focus of Matthew’s narrative is on Herod and not the Magi, readers of Matthew see how a client king of Rome is undone by news of a potential rival’s birth. Herod is a king out of control, not one who rules by self-control. He is the anti-type of a self-possessed ruler of the age.
So what are the means of discernment the narrative ascribes to each character? The Magi follow a star. When it stops over the place where the child is born, they enter the house in great joy. They are also guided by dreams that warn them to depart for their own country another way and not return to Herod and his cruel intentions towards children. Herod’s chief priests and scribes in Jerusalem read prophetic scripture that indicates that the child will be born in Bethlehem. Herod seeks human advice: there is no suggestion that he has access to divine guidance. Joseph receives and heeds a warning dream from an angel.
There are three mediums for discerning divine revelation in Matthew 2 : a star, dreams and prophecy. Each medium is particular to the receiver: for the foreign Magi astronomy, not scripture, provides authoritative revelation; Herod’s advisors consult their scriptures, not the heavens; while Joseph, a righteous man and a devout Jew, is visited with dreams bearing an angel. The stars, the scriptures, the dreams all speak joy, life and triumph for the child and his mother, to those who would receive that message. Herod, seeking his own security and power, receives from divine revelation fear, deceit, stealth and murderous rage.
Throughout its length, the Hebrew Bible demonstrates that God speaks to individuals and nations through dreams and prophetic scripture. Where Matthew breaks new ground is in asserting that the same God of Biblical revelation is also the source of astrological revelation to the Magi that brought them out from a different culture and civilization across many miles with gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh for the child born King of the Jews. We don’t know what happens when they go home. We don’t know how they deal with knowledge of the child. But we do know that God works through their lives and the lives of those with whom they come into contact. This is the Epiphany of Matthew’s Magi for ancient and modern readers.
Dr. Deirdre Good is professor of New Testament at The General Theological Seminary, specializing in the Synoptic Gospels, Christian Origins, Noncanonical writings and biblical languages. Her blog is called On Not Being a Sausage. Julian Sheffield is the business manager of Brooklyn Youth Chorus and
a cradle Episcopalian.

Saturday, December 12, 2015

Why didn't Christianity Die Out in the 1st C?

The BBC has put out a little series: Why Didn't Christianity Die Out in the 1st C CE? Much of it is focused on the work of Professor Kate Cooper of the University of Manchester. Her most recent book Band of Angels: The Forgotten World of Early Christian Womensuggests that small networks of Jesus followers, particularly women meeting in small gatherings and houses, helped spread the gospel. From the publication details above, it's clear that the book has traction and has been well received. I'm going to review this work soon for BAR so more soon.

Wednesday, November 25, 2015

Evidence for Jewish women before the 3rd C in Asia Minor: part 1 (updated)

As a result of a discussion during the recent SBL/AAR, I decided to investigate the assertion I heard: that there is little evidence for Jewish women before the 3rd Century in Asia Minor.

Antiochus III settled 2,000 Jewish families from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor in Lydia and Phrygia on favorable terms between 212 and 205/4 BCE.

70- 235 CE: evidence includes Sibylline Oracles books 1-2. Evidence also in Maccabees, Josephus, Philo, Cicero and early Christian authors; synagogues at Sardia and Priene plus inscriptions wherein names may be Jewish though Jews are integrated into local cities. Cf. Walter Ameling, Inscriptiones Judicae Orientis II: Kleinasien replaces CIJ.

By the first C CE Philo reports In Flacc. 281-2 that Jewish colonies were settled in “Pamphylia, Cilicia, and most of Asia as far as Bithynia and the remote corners of Pontus.” More than 50 places in Asia Minor and probably more.

Josephus Ant. 14.213-6 (management of own finances); 14.259-61 cf also 14.235; 16.171 preserves a decree from the first C CE that probably concerns a synagogue in Sardis although the present synagogue excavated is from a later period. Differences between the synagogues at Sardis and Priene show that diversity exists between different Jewish communities in Asia Minor. Josephus 16.167-8 demonstrates communities paying temple tax.

Josephus and Acts show Jewish communities adhering to dietary laws (Ant 14.261), Sabbath (Ant. 16.167-8) and Jewish festivals (CIJ 777).

Openness to women: Smyrna 2-3rd C CE Rufina was an archisynagogus (CIJ 741), Pompete at Mydnos (CIJ 756); and Jael was a prostates in Aphrodisias. A higher number of women leaders and donors exist perhaps because pagan women held significant offices and titles in Asia Minor cities. “God fearers” exist in Jewish synagogues in Asia Minor: non Jews associated with Jewish community: adopted Jewish customs but not yet proselytes. Aphrodisias lists 52 people described as “god-fearers” most have Gentile names. 9 city councilors were amongst Aphrodisias God-fearers. See also God-fearers in Tralles, Sardis and Miletus (Acts 13:16, 26, 50; 14:1).

Jews held civic office in cities from 3rd C CE in Akmonia, Corycos, Ephesus, Hypaepa, Sardia, and Side. From Apamea, unique series of coins dating from 193-254 CE depict Noah and his wife illustrating that Jewish influence upon civic life in Apamea was clearly significant.

Non Jews eg Julia Severa established a synagogue for the Jewish community in Akmonia in mid-1st C CE and thus a patron of the community.

1) Women as leaders of the synagogue. Inscriptional evidence from Bernadette Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue here.

Rufina, II-III C CE Jewish wealthy woman handling business matters from Smyrna 2nd or 3 C CE, archisunagogos. Inscription indicates Rufina built tomb for her freed slaves and the slaves raised in her house. Patron. Details from Phillip Harland here

Slab of marble (36 x 26 x 2 cm).
Rufina, Judean, head of the synagogue, prepared the burial–niche for her freedmen and slaves.  No one else has the authority to bury anyone else here.  Now if anyone dares to do so, that person will pay 1500 denarii to the most holy treasury and 1000 denarii to the people (ethnos) of the Judeans.  (10) A copy of this inscription was stored in the archive.
Translation by: Harland

Ῥουφεῖνα Ἰουδαία ἀρχιǀσυνάγωγος κατεσκεύαǀσεν τὸ ἐνσόριον τοῖς ἀπεǀλευθέροις καὶ θρέμασιν· ǀǀ μηδενὸς ἄλου ἐξουσίαν ἔǀχοντος θάψαι τινά. εἰ δέ τις τολǀμήσει, δώσει τῷ ἱερωτάτῳ ταǀμείῳ ✳ αφʹ καὶ τῷ ἔθνει τῶν Ἰουǀδαίων ✳ αʹ. ταύτης τῆς ἐπιγραφῆς ǀǀ τὸ ἀντίγραφον ἀπόκειται ǀ εἰς τὸ ἀρχεῖον.